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Alpha-Linolensäure - Omega-3-Fettsäure

  1. Brenda C Davis, Penny M Kris-Etherton: Achieving optimal essential fatty acid status in vegetarians: current knowledge and practical implications; American Society for Clinical Nutrition; Am J Clin Nutr September 2003; vol. 78 no. 3 640S-646S
  2. Burdge GC, Calder PC.: Conversion of alpha-linolenic acid to longer-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in human adults.; Reprod Nutr Dev. 2005 Sep-Oct;45(5):581-97.; PMID: 16188209
  3. Plourde M, Cunnane SC.: Extremely limited synthesis of long chain polyunsaturates in adults: implications for their dietary essentiality and use as supplements.; Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2007 Aug;32(4):619-34.; PMID: 17622276
  4. Sanders TA.: Plant compared with marine n-3 fatty acid effects on cardiovascular risk factors and outcomes: what is the verdict?; First published June 4, 2014, doi: 10.3945/ajcn.113.071555; Am J Clin Nutr July 2014; vol. 100 no. Supplement 1 453S-458S
  5. Narinder Kaur, Vishal Chugh, Anil K. Gupta: Essential fatty acids as functional components of foods- a review; J Food Sci Technol. 2014 Oct; 51(10): 2289–2303.; Published online 2012 Mar 21. doi: 10.1007/s13197-012-0677-0; PMCID: PMC4190204
  6. Penn State Milton S. Hershey Medical Center; Reviewed By: Steven D. Ehrlich, NMD: Alpha-linolenic acid; abgerufen am 03.12.2015
  7. Das UN.: Essential fatty acids: biochemistry, physiology and pathology.; Biotechnol J. 2006 Apr;1(4):420-39.; PMID: 16892270
  8. Angela V Saunders, Brenda C Davis, Manohar L Garg: Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vegetarian diets; Med J Aust 2013; 199 (4 Suppl): S22-S26.; doi: 10.5694/mja11.11507
  9. Kerstin Harnack, Gaby Andersen, Veronika Somoza: Quantitation of alpha-linolenic acid elongation to eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid as affected by the ratio of n6/n3 fatty acids; Nutr Metab (Lond). 2009; 6: 8.; Published online 2009 Feb 19. doi: 10.1186/1743-7075-6-8; PMCID: PMC2656504
  10. Liou YA, King DJ, Zibrik D, Innis SM.: Decreasing linoleic acid with constant alpha-linolenic acid in dietary fats increases (n-3) eicosapentaenoic acid in plasma phospholipids in healthy men.; J. Nutr. April 2007 vol. 137 no. 4 945-952
  11. Pan A, Chen M, Chowdhury R, Wu JH, Sun Q, Campos H, Mozaffarian D, Hu FB.: α-Linolenic acid and risk of cardiovascular disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis.; Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 Dec;96(6):1262-73. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.112.044040. Epub 2012 Oct 17.; PMID: 23076616
  12. Sujatha Rajaram: Health benefits of plant-derived α-linolenic acid; First published June 4, 2014, doi: 10.3945/ajcn.113.071514; Am J Clin Nutr July 2014; vol. 100 no. Supplement 1 443S-448S
  13. Jennifer A. Fleming, Penny M. Kris-Etherton: The Evidence for α-Linolenic Acid and Cardiovascular Disease Benefits: Comparisons with Eicosapentaenoic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid; Adv Nutr. 2014 Nov; 5(6): 863S–876S.; Published online 2014 Nov 3. doi: 10.3945/an.114.005850; PMCID: PMC4224228
  14. Brouwer IA, Katan MB, Zock PL.: Dietary alpha-linolenic acid is associated with reduced risk of fatal coronary heart disease, but increased prostate cancer risk: a meta-analysis.; J Nutr. 2004 Apr;134(4):919-22.; PMID: 15051847
  15. Mozaffarian D.: Does alpha-linolenic acid intake reduce the risk of coronary heart disease? A review of the evidence.; Altern Ther Health Med. 2005 May-Jun;11(3):24-30; quiz 31, 79.; PMID: 15945135
  16. Zatonski W, Campos H, Willett W.: Rapid declines in coronary heart disease mortality in Eastern Europe are associated with increased consumption of oils rich in alpha-linolenic acid.; Eur J Epidemiol. 2008;23(1):3-10. Epub 2007 Oct 23.; PMID: 17955332
  17. Vedtofte MS, Jakobsen MU, Lauritzen L, O'Reilly EJ, Virtamo J, Knekt P, Colditz G, Hallmans G, Buring J, Steffen LM, Robien K, Rimm EB, Heitmann BL.: Association between the intake of α-linolenic acid and the risk of CHD.; Br J Nutr. 2014 Sep 14;112(5):735-43. doi: 10.1017/S000711451400138X. Epub 2014 Jun 25.; PMID: 24964401
  18. Amanda M. Fretts, Dariush Mozaffarian, David S. Siscovick, Colleen Sitlani, Bruce M. Psaty, Eric B. Rimm, Xiaoling Song, Barbara McKnight, Donna Spiegelman, Irena B. King, and Rozenn N. Lemaitre: Plasma phospholipid and dietary α-linolenic acid, mortality, CHD and stroke: the Cardiovascular Health Study; Br J Nutr. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2015 Oct 14.; Published in final edited form as: Br J Nutr. 2014 Oct 14; 112(7): 1206–1213.; Published online 2014 Aug 27. doi: 10.1017/S0007114514001925; PMCID: PMC4192018; NIHMSID: NIHMS629072
  19. Nicolas Blondeau, Robert H. Lipsky, Miled Bourourou, Mark W. Duncan, Philip B. Gorelick, Ann M. Marini: Alpha-Linolenic Acid: An Omega-3 Fatty Acid with Neuroprotective Properties—Ready for Use in the Stroke Clinic?; Biomed Res Int. 2015; 2015: 519830.; Published online 2015 Feb 19. doi: 10.1155/2015/519830; PMCID: PMC4350958
  20. Erdinest N, Shmueli O, Grossman Y, Ovadia H, Solomon A.: Anti-inflammatory effects of alpha linolenic acid on human corneal epithelial cells.; Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012 Jul 3;53(8):4396-406. doi: 10.1167/iovs.12-9724.; PMID: 22669722
  21. Hadjighassem M, Kamalidehghan B, Shekarriz N, Baseerat A, Molavi N, Mehrpour M, Joghataei MT, Tondar M, Ahmadipour F, Meng GY.: Oral consumption of α-linolenic acid increases serum BDNF levels in healthy adult humans.; Nutr J. 2015 Feb 26;14:20. doi: 10.1186/s12937-015-0012-5.; PMID: 25889793
  22. Djoussé L, Arnett DK, Carr JJ, Eckfeldt JH, Hopkins PN, Province MA, Ellison RC; Investigators of the NHLBI FHS.: Dietary linolenic acid is inversely associated with calcified atherosclerotic plaque in the coronary arteries: the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Family Heart Study.; Circulation. 2005 Jun 7;111(22):2921-6. Epub 2005 May 31.; PMID: 15927976
  23. Varga Z.: [Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the prevention of atherosclerosis].; Orv Hetil. 2008 Apr 6;149(14):627-37. doi: 10.1556/OH.2008.28296.; PMID: 18375362
  24. Wang DQ, Liu XL, Rong QF, Han L, Zhao NQ.: [Alpha-linolenic acid improves insulin sensitivity in obese patients].; Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2013 Jan 8;93(2):132-4.; PMID: 23648351
  25. Cornish SM, Chilibeck PD.: Alpha-linolenic acid supplementation and resistance training in older adults.; Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2009 Feb;34(1):49-59. doi: 10.1139/H08-136.; PMID: 1923458
  26. Luc Djoussé, Donna K. Arnett, James S. Pankow, Paul N. Hopkins, Michael A. Province, R. Curtis Ellison: Dietary Linolenic Acid Is Associated With a Lower Prevalence of Hypertension in the NHLBI Family Heart Study; Hypertension. 2005; 45: 368-373; Published online before print January 17, 2005, doi: 10.1161/01.HYP.0000154679.41568.e6
  27. Takeuchi H, Sakurai C, Noda R, Sekine S, Murano Y, Wanaka K, Kasai M, Watanabe S, Aoyama T, Kondo K.: Antihypertensive effect and safety of dietary alpha-linolenic acid in subjects with high-normal blood pressure and mild hypertension.; J Oleo Sci. 2007;56(7):347-60.; PMID: 17898501
  28. Daley C, Patterson A, Sibbritt D, MacDonald-Wicks L.: Unsaturated fat intakes and mental health outcomes in young women from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Heath.; Public Health Nutr. 2015 Feb;18(3):546-53. doi: 10.1017/S1368980014000561. Epub 2014 Apr 9.; PMID: 24717118
  29. Carayol M, Grosclaude P, Delpierre C.: Prospective studies of dietary alpha-linolenic acid intake and prostate cancer risk: a meta-analysis.; Cancer Causes Control. 2010 Mar;21(3):347-55. doi: 10.1007/s10552-009-9465-1.; PMID: 19921446
  30. Leitzmann MF, Stampfer MJ, Michaud DS, Augustsson K, Colditz GC, Willett WC, Giovannucci EL.: Dietary intake of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids and the risk of prostate cancer.; Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 Jul;80(1):204-16.; PMID: 15213050
  31. Brouwer IA, Katan MB, Zock PL.: Dietary alpha-linolenic acid is associated with reduced risk of fatal coronary heart disease, but increased prostate cancer risk: a meta-analysis.; J Nutr. 2004 Apr;134(4):919-22.; PMID: 15051847
  32. Simon JA, Chen YH, Bent S.: The relation of alpha-linolenic acid to the risk of prostate cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.; Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 May;89(5):1558S-1564S. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.2009.26736E. Epub 2009 Mar 25.; PMID: 19321563
  33. Wiggins AK, Mason JK, Thompson LU.: Growth and gene expression differ over time in alpha-linolenic acid treated breast cancer cells.; Exp Cell Res. 2015 Apr 10;333(1):147-54. doi: 10.1016/j.yexcr.2015.02.020. Epub 2015 Mar 2.; PMID: 25743093
  34. Wiggins AK, Kharotia S, Mason JK, Thompson LU.: α-Linolenic Acid Reduces Growth of Both Triple Negative and Luminal Breast Cancer Cells in High and Low Estrogen Environments.; Nutr Cancer. 2015;67(6):1001-9. doi: 10.1080/01635581.2015.1053496. Epub 2015 Jul 2.; PMID: 26134471
  35. Glen D. Lawrence: Dietary Fats and Health: Dietary Recommendations in the Context of Scientific Evidence; doi: 10.3945/an.113.003657; Adv Nutr May 2013 Adv Nutr vol. 4: 294-302, 2013
  36. Narinder Kaur, Vishal Chugh, and Anil K. Gupta: Essential fatty acids as functional components of foods- a review; J Food Sci Technol. 2014 Oct; 51(10): 2289–2303.; Published online 2012 Mar 21. doi: 10.1007/s13197-012-0677-0; PMCID: PMC4190204
  37. Australian National Health and Medical Research Council: Vitamin E; abgerufen am 02.12.2015
  38. Valk EE, Hornstra G.: Relationship between vitamin E requirement and polyunsaturated fatty acid intake in man: a review.; Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2000 Mar;70(2):31-42.; PMID: 10804454
  39. Angela V Saunders, Brenda C Davis, Manohar L Garg: Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vegetarian diets; Med J Aust 2013; 199 (4 Suppl): S22-S26.; doi: 10.5694/mja11.11507
  40. Brenda C Davis, Penny M Kris-Etherton: Achieving optimal essential fatty acid status in vegetarians: current knowledge and practical implications; American Society for Clinical Nutrition; Am J Clin Nutr September 2003; vol. 78 no. 3 640S-646S
  41. Jaclyn M Coletta, MD; Stacey J Bell, DSc, RD; Ashley S Roman, MD, MPH: Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Pregnancy; Rev Obstet Gynecol. 2010 Fall; 3(4): 163–171.; PMCID: PMC3046737
  42. Brenda C Davis, Penny M Kris-Etherton: Achieving optimal essential fatty acid status in vegetarians: current knowledge and practical implications; American Society for Clinical Nutrition; Am J Clin Nutr September 2003; vol. 78 no. 3 640S-646S
  43. European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), Parma, Italy: Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for fats, including saturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, trans fatty acids, and cholesterol; EFSA Journal 2010; 8(3):1461 [107 pp.].; doi: 10.2903/j.efsa.2010.1461; Published: 25. März 2010
  44. Brenna JT, Salem N Jr, Sinclair AJ, Cunnane SC; International Society for the Study of Fatty Acids and Lipids, ISSFAL.: alpha-Linolenic acid supplementation and conversion to n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in humans.; Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2009 Feb-Mar;80(2-3):85-91. doi: 10.1016/j.plefa.2009.01.004. Epub 2009 Mar 9.; PMID: 19269799
  45. Arterburn LM, Hall EB, Oken H.: Distribution, interconversion, and dose response of n-3 fatty acids in humans.; Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Jun;83(6 Suppl):1467S-1476S.; PMID: 16841856
  46. Davis BC, Kris-Etherton PM.: Achieving optimal essential fatty acid status in vegetarians: current knowledge and practical implications.; Am J Clin Nutr. 2003 Sep;78(3 Suppl):640S-646S.; PMID: 12936959
  47. Rosell MS, Lloyd-Wright Z, Appleby PN, Sanders TA, Allen NE, Key TJ.: Long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in plasma in British meat-eating, vegetarian, and vegan men.; Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 Aug;82(2):327-34.; PMID: 16087975
  48. Sarter B, Kelsey KS, Schwartz TA, Harris WS.: Blood docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid in vegans: Associations with age and gender and effects of an algal-derived omega-3 fatty acid supplement.; Clin Nutr. 2015 Apr;34(2):212-8. doi: 10.1016/j.clnu.2014.03.003. Epub 2014 Mar 14.; PMID: 24679552
  49. Innis SM.: Fatty acids and early human development.; Early Hum Dev. 2007 Dec;83(12):761-6. Epub 2007 Oct 24.; PMID: 17920214
  50. Kim KB, Nam YA, Kim HS, Hayes AW, Lee BM.: α-Linolenic acid: nutraceutical, pharmacological and toxicological evaluation.; Food Chem Toxicol. 2014 Aug;70:163-78. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2014.05.009. Epub 2014 May 21.; PMID: 24859185
  51. Lu M, Taylor A, Chylack LT Jr, Rogers G, Hankinson SE, Willett WC, Jacques PF.: Dietary linolenic acid intake is positively associated with five-year change in eye lens nuclear density.; J Am Coll Nutr. 2007 Apr;26(2):133-40.; PMID: 17536124
  52. Kornek A, Kucharska A, Kamela K.: Analysis of the fatty acid profile of vegetarian and non-vegetarian diet in the context of some diet-related diseases prevention.; Wiad Lek. 2016;69(3 pt 2):483-488.; PMID: 27717930