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Omega-3-Fettsäuren

  1. William E Connor: Importance of n−3 fatty acids in health and disease; American Society for Clinical Nutrition; Am J Clin Nutr January 2000; vol. 71 no. 1 171S-175S
  2. Angela V Saunders, Brenda C Davis, Manohar L Garg: Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vegetarian diets; Med J Aust 2013; 199 (4 Suppl): S22-S26.; doi: 10.5694/mja11.11507
  3. Xiaomei Yu, Tao Huang, Xiumei Weng, Tianxing Shou, Qiang Wang, Xiaoqiong Zhou, Qinxin Hu, Duo Li: Plasma n-3 and n-6 fatty acids and inflammatory markers in Chinese vegetarians; Lipids Health Dis. 2014; 13: 151.; Published online 2014 Sep 29. doi: 10.1186/1476-511X-13-151; PMCID: PMC4196115
  4. Winston J Craig: Health effects of vegan diets; American Society for Nutrition; First published March 11, 2009, doi: 10.3945/ajcn.2009.26736N; Am J Clin Nutr May 2009; vol. 89 no. 5 1627S-1633S
  5. Elorinne AL, Alfthan G, Erlund I, Kivimäki H, Paju A, Salminen I, Turpeinen U, Voutilainen S, Laakso J.: Food and Nutrient Intake and Nutritional Status of Finnish Vegans and Non-Vegetarians.; PLoS One. 2016 Feb 3;11(2):e0148235.; doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0148235. eCollection 2016.; PMID: 26840251
  6. Joanne Bradbury: Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA): An Ancient Nutrient for the Modern Human Brain; Nutrients. 2011 May; 3(5): 529–554.; Published online 2011 May 10. doi: 10.3390/nu3050529; PMCID: PMC3257695
  7. Jeffrey BG, Weisinger HS, Neuringer M, Mitchell DC.: The role of docosahexaenoic acid in retinal function.; Lipids. 2001 Sep;36(9):859-71.; PMID: 11724458
  8. Stillwell W, Wassall SR.: Docosahexaenoic acid: membrane properties of a unique fatty acid.; Chem Phys Lipids. 2003 Nov;126(1):1-27.; PMID: 14580707
  9. Adarme-Vega TC, Lim DK, Timmins M, Vernen F, Li Y, Schenk PM.: Microalgal biofactories: a promising approach towards sustainable omega-3 fatty acid production.; Microb Cell Fact. 2012 Jul 25;11:96. doi: 10.1186/1475-2859-11-96.; PMID: 22830315
  10. Doughman SD, Krupanidhi S, Sanjeevi CB.: Omega-3 fatty acids for nutrition and medicine: considering microalgae oil as a vegetarian source of EPA and DHA.; Curr Diabetes Rev. 2007 Aug;3(3):198-203.; PMID: 18220672
  11. Geppert J, Kraft V, Demmelmair H, Koletzko B.: Microalgal docosahexaenoic acid decreases plasma triacylglycerol in normolipidaemic vegetarians: a randomised trial.; Br J Nutr. 2006 Apr;95(4):779-86.; PMID: 16571158
  12. Calder PC, Yaqoob P.: Understanding omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.; Postgrad Med. 2009 Nov;121(6):148-57. doi: 10.3810/pgm.2009.11.2083.; PMID: 19940425
  13. Kornsteiner M, Singer I, Elmadfa I.: Very low n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid status in Austrian vegetarians and vegans.; Ann Nutr Metab. 2008;52(1):37-47. doi: 10.1159/000118629. Epub 2008 Feb 28.; PMID: 18305382
  14. Mélanie Plourde, Stephen C. Cunnanea: Extremely limited synthesis of long chain polyunsaturates in adults: implications for their dietary essentiality and use as supplements; Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, 2007, 32(4): 619-634, 10.1139/H07-034; Volume 32, Number 4, August 2007; Published on the web 12 June 2007.
  15. Brenda C Davis, Penny M Kris-Etherton; Achieving optimal essential fatty acid status in vegetarians: current knowledge and practical implications; American Society for Clinical Nutrition; Am J Clin Nutr September 2003; vol. 78 no. 3 640S-646S
  16. Fokkema MR, Brouwer DA, Hasperhoven MB, Martini IA, Muskiet FA.: Short-term supplementation of low-dose gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), or GLA plus ALA does not augment LCP omega 3 status of Dutch vegans to an appreciable extent.; Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2000 Nov;63(5):287-92.; PMID: 11090255
  17. Burdge GC, Calder PC.: Conversion of alpha-linolenic acid to longer-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in human adults.; Reprod Nutr Dev. 2005 Sep-Oct;45(5):581-97.; PMID: 16188209
  18. Childs CE, Kew S, Finnegan YE, Minihane AM, Leigh-Firbank EC, Williams CM, Calder PC.: Increased dietary α-linolenic acid has sex-specific effects upon eicosapentaenoic acid status in humans: re-examination of data from a randomised, placebo-controlled, parallel study.; Nutr J. 2014 Dec 11;13(1):113. doi: 10.1186/1475-2891-13-113.; PMID: 25496415
  19. Burdge GC, Wootton SA.: Conversion of alpha-linolenic acid to eicosapentaenoic, docosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids in young women.; Br J Nutr. 2002 Oct;88(4):411-20.; PMID: 12323090
  20. Jin F, Nieman DC, Sha W, Xie G, Qiu Y, Jia W.: Supplementation of milled chia seeds increases plasma ALA and EPA in postmenopausal women.; Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 2012 Jun;67(2):105-10. doi: 10.1007/s11130-012-0286-0.; PMID: 22538527
  21. Thomas AB Sanders: Plant compared with marine n–3 fatty acid effects on cardiovascular risk factors and outcomes: what is the verdict?; American Society for Nutrition; First published June 4, 2014, doi: 10.3945/ajcn.113.071555; Am J Clin Nutr July 2014; vol. 100 no. Supplement 1 453S-458S
  22. Angela V Saunders, Brenda C Davis, Manohar L Garg: Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vegetarian diets; Med J Aust 2013; 199 (4 Suppl): S22-S26.; doi: 10.5694/mja11.11507
  23. Brenda C Davis, Penny M Kris-Etherton; Achieving optimal essential fatty acid status in vegetarians: current knowledge and practical implications; American Society for Clinical Nutrition; Am J Clin Nutr September 2003; vol. 78 no. 3 640S-646S
  24. Kerstin Harnack, Gaby Andersen, Veronika Somoza: Quantitation of alpha-linolenic acid elongation to eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid as affected by the ratio of n6/n3 fatty acids; Nutr Metab (Lond). 2009; 6: 8.; Published online 2009 Feb 19. doi: 10.1186/1743-7075-6-8; PMCID: PMC2656504
  25. Gerster H.: Can adults adequately convert alpha-linolenic acid (18:3n-3) to eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3)?; Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 1998;68(3):159-73.; PMID: 9637947
  26. Wood KE, Lau A, Mantzioris E, Gibson RA, Ramsden CE, Muhlhausler BS.: A low omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-6 PUFA) diet increases omega-3 (n-3) long chain PUFA status in plasma phospholipids in humans.; Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2014 Apr;90(4):133-8. doi: 10.1016/j.plefa.2013.12.010. Epub 2014 Jan 8.; PMID: 24456663
  27. University of Maryland Medical Center (UMMC): Alpha-linolenic acid; abgerufen am 27.11.2015
  28. Das UN.: Essential fatty acids: biochemistry, physiology and pathology.; Biotechnol J. 2006 Apr;1(4):420-39.; PMID: 16892270
  29. Angela V Saunders, Brenda C Davis, Manohar L Garg: Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vegetarian diets; Med J Aust 2013; 199 (4 Suppl): S22-S26.; doi: 10.5694/mja11.11507
  30. Sanders TA.: DHA status of vegetarians.; Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2009 Aug-Sep;81(2-3):137-41. doi: 10.1016/j.plefa.2009.05.013. Epub 2009 Jun 4.; PMID: 19500961
  31. Thomas AB Sanders: Plant compared with marine n–3 fatty acid effects on cardiovascular risk factors and outcomes: what is the verdict?; American Society for Nutrition; First published June 4, 2014, doi: 10.3945/ajcn.113.071555; Am J Clin Nutr July 2014; vol. 100 no. Supplement 1 453S-458S
  32. Winston J Craig: Health effects of vegan diets; American Society for Nutrition; First published March 11, 2009, doi: 10.3945/ajcn.2009.26736N; Am J Clin Nutr May 2009; vol. 89 no. 5 1627S-1633S
  33. Marangoni F, Colombo C, De Angelis L, Gambaro V, Agostoni C, Giovannini M, Galli C.: Cigarette smoke negatively and dose-dependently affects the biosynthetic pathway of the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid series in human mammary epithelial cells.; Lipids. 2004 Jul;39(7):633-7.; PMID: 15588020
  34. Ferrucci L, Cherubini A, Bandinelli S, Bartali B, Corsi A, Lauretani F, Martin A, Andres-Lacueva C, Senin U, Guralnik JM.: Relationship of plasma polyunsaturated fatty acids to circulating inflammatory markers.; J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006 Feb;91(2):439-46. Epub 2005 Oct 18.; PMID: 16234304
  35. Philip C. Calder: n-3 Fatty acids, inflammation and immunity: new mechanisms to explain old actions; Proceedings of the Nutrition Society / Volume 72 / Issue 03 / August 2013, pp 326-336; DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0029665113001031 (About DOI), Published online: 14 May 2013
  36. Calder PC.: n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, inflammation, and inflammatory diseases.; Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Jun;83(6 Suppl):1505S-1519S.; PMID: 16841861
  37. Lardinois CK.: The role of omega 3 fatty acids on insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity.; Med Hypotheses. 1987 Nov;24(3):243-8.; PMID: 3320694
  38. Karr JE, Alexander JE, Winningham RG.: Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and cognition throughout the lifespan: a review.; Nutr Neurosci. 2011 Sep;14(5):216-25. doi: 10.1179/1476830511Y.0000000012.; PMID: 22005286
  39. Sheila M. Innis: Dietary (n-3) Fatty Acids and Brain Development; American Society for Nutrition; J. Nutr. April 2007; vol. 137 no. 4 855-859
  40. Mahmoudi MJ, Hedayat M, Sharifi F, Mirarefin M, Nazari N, Mehrdad N, Ghaderpanahi M, Tajalizadekhoob Y, Badamchizade Z, Larijani B, Alatab S, Alizadeh M, Arzaghi SM, Najafi B, Fakhrzadeh H.; Effect of low dose ω-3 poly unsaturated fatty acids on cognitive status among older people: a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled study.; J Diabetes Metab Disord. 2014 Feb 7;13(1):34. doi: 10.1186/2251-6581-13-34.; PMID: 24507770
  41. U.S. National Library of Medicine: Facts about polyunsaturated fats; abgerufen am 27.11.2015
  42. Wijendran V, Hayes KC.: Dietary n-6 and n-3 fatty acid balance and cardiovascular health.; Annu Rev Nutr. 2004;24:597-615.; PMID: 15189133
  43. University of Rochester Medical Center: Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Coronary Heart Disease; abgerufen am 27.11.2015
  44. Ferrucci L, Cherubini A, Bandinelli S, Bartali B, Corsi A, Lauretani F, Martin A, Andres-Lacueva C, Senin U, Guralnik JM.: Relationship of plasma polyunsaturated fatty acids to circulating inflammatory markers.; J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006 Feb;91(2):439-46. Epub 2005 Oct 18.; PMID: 16234304
  45. University of Maryland Medical Center (UMMC): Alpha-linolenic acid; abgerufen am 27.11.2015
  46. Lorente-Cebrián S, Costa AG, Navas-Carretero S, Zabala M, Laiglesia LM, Martínez JA, Moreno-Aliaga MJ.: An update on the role of omega-3 fatty acids on inflammatory and degenerative diseases.; J Physiol Biochem. 2015 Jun;71(2):341-9. doi: 10.1007/s13105-015-0395-y. Epub 2015 Mar 11.; PMID: 25752887
  47. Cabo J, Alonso R, Mata P.: Omega-3 fatty acids and blood pressure.; Br J Nutr. 2012 Jun;107 Suppl 2:S195-200. doi: 10.1017/S0007114512001584.; PMID: 22591893
  48. The President and Fellows of Harvard College: Omega-3 Fatty Acids: An Essential Contribution; The Nutrition Source; abgerufen am 27.11.2015
  49. University of Oxford: 'Higher levels of omega-3 in diet associated with better sleep'
  50. Patrick RP, Ames BN.: Vitamin D and the omega-3 fatty acids control serotonin synthesis and action, part 2: relevance for ADHD, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and impulsive behavior.; FASEB J. 2015 Jun;29(6):2207-22. doi: 10.1096/fj.14-268342. Epub 2015 Feb 24.; PMID: 25713056
  51. Giuseppe Grosso, Fabio Galvano, Stefano Marventano, Michele Malaguarnera, Claudio Bucolo, Filippo Drago, and Filippo Caraci: Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Depression: Scientific Evidence and Biological Mechanisms; Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity; Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 313570, 16 pages; http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/313570
  52. Sontrop J, Campbell MK.: Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and depression: a review of the evidence and a methodological critique.; Prev Med. 2006 Jan;42(1):4-13. Epub 2005 Dec 7.; PMID: 16337677
  53. Deacon G, Kettle C, Hayes D, Dennis C, Tucci J.: Omega 3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and the Treatment of Depression.; Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2015 Apr 1:0. [Epub ahead of print]; PMID: 25830700
  54. Krawczyk K, Rybakowski J.: [Augmentation of antidepressants with unsaturated fatty acids omega-3 in drug-resistant depression].; Psychiatr Pol. 2012 Jul-Aug;46(4):585-98.; PMID: 23214161
  55. Muszyńska B, Łojewski M, Rojowski J, Opoka W, Sułkowska-Ziaja K.: Natural products of relevance in the prevention and supportive treatment of depression.; Psychiatr Pol. 2015 May-Jun;49(3):435-53. doi: 10.12740/PP/29367.; PMID: 26276913
  56. Amminger GP, Schäfer MR, Papageorgiou K, Klier CM, Cotton SM, Harrigan SM, Mackinnon A, McGorry PD, Berger GE.: Long-chain omega-3 fatty acids for indicated prevention of psychotic disorders: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial.; Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2010 Feb;67(2):146-54.; doi: 10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2009.192.; PMID: 20124114
  57. Bucher HC, Hengstler P, Schindler C, Meier G.: N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in coronary heart disease: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.; Am J Med. 2002 Mar;112(4):298-304.; PMID: 11893369
  58. Kwak SM, Myung SK, Lee YJ, Seo HG; Korean Meta-analysis Study Group.: Efficacy of omega-3 fatty acid supplements (eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid) in the secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease: a meta-analysis of randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials.; Arch Intern Med. 2012 May 14;172(9):686-94. doi: 10.1001/archinternmed.2012.262.; PMID: 22493407
  59. Mozaffarian D, Ascherio A, Hu FB, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC, Siscovick DS, Rimm EB.: Interplay between different polyunsaturated fatty acids and risk of coronary heart disease in men.; Circulation. 2005 Jan 18;111(2):157-64. Epub 2005 Jan 3.; PMID: 15630029
  60. Rizos EC, Ntzani EE, Bika E, Kostapanos MS, Elisaf MS.: Association between omega-3 fatty acid supplementation and risk of major cardiovascular disease events: a systematic review and meta-analysis.; JAMA. 2012 Sep 12;308(10):1024-33. doi: 10.1001/2012.jama.11374.; PMID: 22968891
  61. Lin PY, Su KP.: A meta-analytic review of double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of antidepressant efficacy of omega-3 fatty acids.; J Clin Psychiatry. 2007 Jul;68(7):1056-61.; PMID: 17685742
  62. Harris WS, Poston WC, Haddock CK.: Tissue n-3 and n-6 fatty acids and risk for coronary heart disease events.; Atherosclerosis. 2007 Jul;193(1):1-10. Epub 2007 May 15.; PMID: 17507020
  63. Vedtofte MS, Jakobsen MU, Lauritzen L, Heitmann BL.: Dietary α-linolenic acid, linoleic acid, and n-3 long-chain PUFA and risk of ischemic heart disease.; Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Oct;94(4):1097-103. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.111.018762. Epub 2011 Aug 24.; PMID: 21865326
  64. Del Gobbo LC, Imamura F, Aslibekyan S, et al. ω-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Biomarkers and Coronary Heart Disease: Pooling Project of 19 Cohort Studies. JAMA Intern Med. Published online June 27, 2016. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2016.2925.
  65. Hall MN, Campos H, Li H, Sesso HD, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC, Ma J.: Blood levels of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, aspirin, and the risk of colorectal cancer.; Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2007 Feb;16(2):314-21.; PMID: 17301265
  66. Noel SE, Stoneham AC, Olsen CM, Rhodes LE, Green AC.: Consumption of omega-3 fatty acids and the risk of skin cancers: a systematic review and meta-analysis.; Int J Cancer. 2014 Jul 1;135(1):149-56. doi: 10.1002/ijc.28630. Epub 2013 Dec 18.; PMID: 24265065
  67. hiébaut AC, Chajès V, Gerber M, Boutron-Ruault MC, Joulin V, Lenoir G, Berrino F, Riboli E, Bénichou J, Clavel-Chapelon F.: Dietary intakes of omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and the risk of breast cancer.; Int J Cancer. 2009 Feb 15;124(4):924-31. doi: 10.1002/ijc.23980.; PMID:
  68. Yee LD, Lester JL, Cole RM, Richardson JR, Hsu JC, Li Y, Lehman A, Belury MA, Clinton SK.: Omega-3 fatty acid supplements in women at high risk of breast cancer have dose-dependent effects on breast adipose tissue fatty acid composition.; Am J Clin Nutr. 2010 May;91(5):1185-94. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.2009.29036. Epub 2010 Mar 24.; PMID: 20335550
  69. Wiggins AK, Mason JK, Thompson LU.: Growth and gene expression differ over time in alpha-linolenic acid treated breast cancer cells.; Exp Cell Res. 2015 Apr 10;333(1):147-54. doi: 10.1016/j.yexcr.2015.02.020. Epub 2015 Mar 2.; PMID: 25743093
  70. Shannon J, King IB, Moshofsky R, Lampe JW, Gao DL, Ray RM, Thomas DB.: Erythrocyte fatty acids and breast cancer risk: a case-control study in Shanghai, China.; Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Apr;85(4):1090-7.; PMID: 17413110
  71. Carol J Fabian, Bruce F Kimler, Stephen D Hursting: Omega-3 fatty acids for breast cancer prevention and survivorship; Breast Cancer Res. 2015; 17(1): 62.; Published online 2015 May 4. doi: 10.1186/s13058-015-0571-6; PMCID: PMC4418048
  72. Carayol M, Grosclaude P, Delpierre C.: Prospective studies of dietary alpha-linolenic acid intake and prostate cancer risk: a meta-analysis.; Cancer Causes Control. 2010 Mar;21(3):347-55. doi: 10.1007/s10552-009-9465-1.; PMID: 19921446
  73. Leitzmann MF, Stampfer MJ, Michaud DS, Augustsson K, Colditz GC, Willett WC, Giovannucci EL.: Dietary intake of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids and the risk of prostate cancer.; Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 Jul;80(1):204-16.; PMID: 15213050
  74. Brouwer IA, Katan MB, Zock PL.: Dietary alpha-linolenic acid is associated with reduced risk of fatal coronary heart disease, but increased prostate cancer risk: a meta-analysis.; J Nutr. 2004 Apr;134(4):919-22.; PMID: 15051847
  75. Tyler A Churchward-Venne, Nicholas A Burd, Stuart M Phillips: Nutritional regulation of muscle protein synthesis with resistance exercise: strategies to enhance anabolism: Nutr Metab (Lond). 2012; 9: 40.; Published online 2012 May 17. doi: 10.1186/1743-7075-9-40; PMCID: PMC3464665
  76. Steve Hertzler, PhD, RD, LD: The Role of Omega‐3 Fatty Acids in Performance and Exercise Recovery
  77. Smith GI, Atherton P, Reeds DN, Mohammed BS, Rankin D, Rennie MJ, Mittendorfer B.: Dietary omega-3 fatty acid supplementation increases the rate of muscle protein synthesis in older adults: a randomized controlled trial.; Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Feb;93(2):402-12. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.110.005611. Epub 2010 Dec 15.; PMID: 21159787
  78. Gordon I Smith, Philip Atherton, Dominic N Reeds, B Selma Mohammed, Debbie Rankin, Michael J Rennie, Bettina Mittendorfer: Dietary omega-3 fatty acid supplementation increases the rate of muscle protein synthesis in older adults: a randomized controlled trial; Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Feb; 93(2): 402–412.; Published online 2010 Dec 15. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.110.005611; PMCID: PMC3021432
  79. Tartibian B, Maleki BH, Abbasi A.: The effects of ingestion of omega-3 fatty acids on perceived pain and external symptoms of delayed onset muscle soreness in untrained men.; Clin J Sport Med. 2009 Mar;19(2):115-9. doi: 10.1097/JSM.0b013e31819b51b3.; PMID: 19451765
  80. Mickleborough TD.: Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in physical performance optimization.; Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2013 Feb;23(1):83-96.; PMID: 23400626
  81. Vaughan RA, Garcia-Smith R, Bisoffi M, Conn CA, Trujillo KA. : Conjugated linoleic acid or omega 3 fatty acids increase mitochondrial biosynthesis and metabolism in skeletal muscle cells.; Lipids Health Dis. 2012 Oct 30;11:142. doi: 10.1186/1476-511X-11-142.; PMID: 23107305
  82. Benjamin B. Albert, José G. B. Derraik, Christine M. Brennan, Janene B. Biggs, Greg C. Smith, Manohar L. Garg, David Cameron-Smith, Paul L. Hofman & Wayne S. Cutfield: Higher omega-3 index is associated with increased insulin sensitivity and more favourable metabolic profile in middle-aged overweight men; Scientific Reports 4, Article number: 6697 (2014); doi:10.1038/srep06697; Published online: 21 October 2014
  83. Arterburn LM, Hall EB, Oken H.: Distribution, interconversion, and dose response of n-3 fatty acids in humans.; Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Jun;83(6 Suppl):1467S-1476S.; PMID: 16841856
  84. The President and Fellows of Harvard College: Fats and Cholesterol; abgerufen am 27.11.2015
  85. Angela V Saunders, Brenda C Davis, Manohar L Garg: Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vegetarian diets; Med J Aust 2013; 199 (4 Suppl): S22-S26.; doi: 10.5694/mja11.11507
  86. Brenda C Davis, Penny M Kris-Etherton; Achieving optimal essential fatty acid status in vegetarians: current knowledge and practical implications; American Society for Clinical Nutrition; Am J Clin Nutr September 2003; vol. 78 no. 3 640S-646S
  87. Brenda C Davis, Penny M Kris-Etherton; Achieving optimal essential fatty acid status in vegetarians: current knowledge and practical implications; American Society for Clinical Nutrition; Am J Clin Nutr September 2003; vol. 78 no. 3 640S-646S
  88. European Food Safety Authority (EFSA): Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for fats, including saturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, trans fatty acids, and cholesterol; EFSA Journal 2010; 8(3):1461 [107 pp.].; doi: 10.2903/j.efsa.2010.1461; Published: 25. März 2010
  89. Brenna JT, Salem N Jr, Sinclair AJ, Cunnane SC; International Society for the Study of Fatty Acids and Lipids, ISSFAL.: alpha-Linolenic acid supplementation and conversion to n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in humans.; Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2009 Feb-Mar;80(2-3):85-91. doi: 10.1016/j.plefa.2009.01.004. Epub 2009 Mar 9.; PMID: 19269799
  90. Francois CA, Connor SL, Bolewicz LC, Connor WE.: Supplementing lactating women with flaxseed oil does not increase docosahexaenoic acid in their milk.; Am J Clin Nutr. 2003 Jan;77(1):226-33.; PMID: 12499346
  91. Arterburn LM, Hall EB, Oken H.: Distribution, interconversion, and dose response of n-3 fatty acids in humans.; Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Jun;83(6 Suppl):1467S-1476S.; PMID: 16841856
  92. Ailsa A Welch, Subodha Shakya-Shrestha, Marleen AH Lentjes, Nicholas J Wareham, Kay-Tee Khaw: Dietary intake and status of n−3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in a population of fish-eating and non-fish-eating meat-eaters, vegetarians, and vegans and the precursor-product ratio of α-linolenic acid to long-chain n−3 polyunsaturated fatty acids: results from the EPIC-Norfolk cohort; First published September 22, 2010, doi: 10.3945/ajcn.2010.29457; Am J Clin Nutr November 2010; vol. 92 no. 5 1040-1051
  93. Magdalena S Rosell, Zouë Lloyd-Wright, Paul N Appleby, Thomas AB Sanders, Naomi E Allen, Timothy J Key: Long-chain n–3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in plasma in British meat-eating, vegetarian, and vegan men; American Society for Clinical Nutrition; Am J Clin Nutr August 2005; vol. 82 no. 2 327-334
  94. A.M. Pinto, H.K. Al Khatib, T.A.B. Sanders, W.L. Hall: Heart rate variability and long chain n-3 PUFA dietary intake and status: a comparison between matched vegans and omnivores; Proceedings of the Nutrition Society / Volume 74 / Issue OCE5 / January 2015, E307 (1 page); DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0029665115003547 (About DOI), Published online: 23 September 2015
  95. Jain AP, Aggarwal KK, Zhang PY.: Omega-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular disease.; Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2015;19(3):441-5.; PMID: 25720716
  96. University of Maryland Medical Center (UMMC): Omega-3 fatty acids; abgerufen am 27.11.2015
  97. Stephen C. Cunnanea, Raphael Chouinard-Watkinsa, Christian A. Castellanoa, Pascale Barberger-Gateaud: Docosahexaenoic acid homeostasis, brain aging and Alzheimer's disease: Can we reconcile the evidence?; Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids (PLEFA); Volume 88, Issue 1, January 2013, Pages 61–70; The Tenth Fatty Acids and Cell Signalling Meeting (FACS-10)
  98. Brenda C Davis, Penny M Kris-Etherton: Achieving optimal essential fatty acid status in vegetarians: current knowledge and practical implications; Am J Clin Nutr September 2003; vol. 78 no. 3 640S-646S
  99. Linus Pauling Institute | Oregon State University: Essential Fatty Acids; abgerufen am 27.11.2015
  100. Uauy R, Hoffman DR, Peirano P, Birch DG, Birch EE.: Essential fatty acids in visual and brain development.; Lipids. 2001 Sep;36(9):885-95.; PMID: 11724460
  101. Hoffman DR, Boettcher JA, Diersen-Schade DA.: Toward optimizing vision and cognition in term infants by dietary docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acid supplementation: a review of randomized controlled trials.; Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2009 Aug-Sep;81(2-3):151-8. doi: 10.1016/j.plefa.2009.05.003. Epub 2009 Jun 7.; PMID: 19505812
  102. Danielle Swanson, Robert Block, Shaker A. Mousa: Omega-3 Fatty Acids EPA and DHA: Health Benefits Throughout Life; doi: 10.3945/an.111.000893; Adv Nutr January 2012 Adv Nutr vol. 3: 1-7, 2012
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